(中学篇)2018年第05期:学科核心素养视角下的中学英语词汇教学模式探究(江苏:苏攀)一文涉及的教学内容

 
材料1:National Flags, Colors and Cultures
 
Today, every independent country has a flag that gives it a unique identity. These flags are more than just pieces of cloth sewn together at random with thread. A flag tells us something about the country it represents, such as its values, beliefs and culture.
 
 France
 
The French flag was first used in 1789, at the start of the French Revolution. Before the Revolution, there had been great unrest in France because people had no freedom and were suffering from hunger. The French Revolution led to fundamental changes throughout the country. Many of the past ways were abolished, and the people won liberation. Strengthened by the Revolution, France became a different country.
 
The colors red, blue and white used on the flag remind us of the motto of the Revolution — liberty, equality and fraternity. Red symbolizes the bravery, revolution, strength and blood of the French, which were all needed to change the country. Blue stands for liberty and justice, while white represents peace and honesty. Today, France is still guided by those principles.
 
In salute to the French and their revolution, many countries have chosen to use the same colors on their flags as the French did. In this way, the French flag has become one of the most important national flags in history.
 
The USA
 
The USA was also born from revolution, and its flag, the Stars and Stripes, is a symbol of this. The USA was originally made up of settlers from Britain and other countries, organized into thirteen British colonies.
 
Even though they lived in colonies, the Americans had been used to autonomous rule and low taxes. However, after the French and Indian war, the British raised the tax rates in America to a high level in order to pay for the conflict. When the Americans objected to this, the British would not compromise, but increased control over their American colonies instead, taking away many of their rights, and stationing soldiers there in order to make sure that the Americans would obey them. At this, the Americans demanded separation from Britain, and on 4 July 1776, they declared that they would no longer submit to British rule. This led to war, and to America gaining its independence.
 
The colors red, white and blue, along with the stars and stripes on the American flag, all represent different things. Red represents strength and bravery, white means virtue, and blue stands for hard work and justice. There are fifty stars on the flag, one for each state, representing the union of fifty states into one country in a federal system. The thirteen stripes are to remind people of the thirteen colonies that joined together to fight for independence from Britain. Each year on 4 July, the USA celebrates Independence Day, when the Stars and Stripes can be seen all over the country, lit by fireworks in the night sky.
 
Indonesia
 
The Indonesian flag became official on 17 August 1945, immediately after the end of World War Two. The flag, which is made up of a red band over a white one, is based on a national flag dating back to the 13th century, which had nine red and white stripes.
 
There are many explanations offered for the meanings of the colors on the Indonesian flag. The most common one is that red stands for blood, or things that are physical, while white represents the spiritual. Another suggestion is that the colors have a link with food. For the Indonesians, red resembles the color of sugar (because of the plant that it comes from) and white looks like rice. Both sugar and rice are consumed daily in Indonesian food. Other people say that the color red on the Indonesian flag stands for the brave nature of the Indonesian people. It can also represent the fire that comes from Indonesia's volcanoes. Like in many other countries, the color white is regarded as a symbol of purity in Indonesia.
 
Each of the colors on a country's flag was carefully chosen to represent something about the country or the people living there. Therefore, when we look at a flag, we can begin to see and study a country's history and culture. It is also a good place to see some similarities and differences between different countries.    
 
 
材料2:Colors in Chinese Culture
 
Colors in Chinese culture refer to the certain values that Chinese culture which is attached to colors, like which colors are considered auspicious (吉利) or inauspicious (不吉利).
 
In modern China, black is used in daily clothing. White is affiliated with death and mourning and was formerly worn at funerals, but depends on the age of passing. Blue represents integrity, referring to a quality of being honest and strong about what you believe to be right.
 
Red, corresponding with fire, symbolizes good fortune and joy. Red is found everywhere during Chinese New Year and other holidays and family gatherings. The red color of the packet is a sign of good luck. Red is strictly forbidden at funerals as it is a traditionally symbol of happiness; however, people never like colors without any definite aim. As the names of the dead were previously written in red, people usually disapprove of using red ink for their names in contexts other than official seals. In modern China, red remains a very popular color and is affiliated with and used by the Government. Besides, red is also related to strength and bravery, a symbol of revolution causing the greatest changes to Chinese development. When the revolution achieved success, the most important principles of liberty and equality were truly carried out. Red represents a warm, cheerful, enthusiastic, passionate, enthusiastic positive state of mind.
 
Generally green is a symbol of health, prosperity, and harmony. Separately, green hats correspond to infidelity (不忠) . This has caused uneasiness for Chinese Catholic bishops, who in ecclesiastical heraldry would normally have a green hat above their arms.
 
White, corresponding with metal, represents gold and symbolizes a bright clean quality. Doctors and nurses normally wear uniforms. White is also the color of mourning. Ancient Chinese people wore white clothes and hats only when they mourned for the dead.
 
Yellow, attached to earth, is considered the most beautiful and prestigious (有名望的) color. The Chinese saying, Yellow generates Yin and Yang, implies that yellow is the center of everything. Associated with but ranked above brown, yellow signifies neutrality and good luck. Yellow is sometimes paired with red in place of gold.
 
Yellow also represents freedom from worldly cares and is thus esteemed in Buddhism. Monks' garments are yellow, as are elements of Buddhist temples.
 
Yellow is also symbolic of heroism, as opposed to the Western association of the colour with cowardice.
 
With the passage of time, people show different opinions on symbolic meanings of some colors in Chinese culture. For example, yellow also represents pornography (色情文学) in China today. Maybe there will be more and more symbolic meanings of colors in Chinese culture in the future.
 
 
材料3:Colors and People
 
There are three primary colors: red, yellow, and blue. Certain psychologists have put people who love these colors into different groups.
 
The group of people who love red are those who have self-confidence enough to be heroes and winners of competitions. They also have confidence in changing themselves and have a bright future. They believe they can complete difficult tasks because of their spirit of perseverance and persistence. Red color lovers usually have a warm, cheerful and enthusiastic mentality. They spend no time feeling sad about errors make or disasters that might happen.
 
The yellow color is usually loved by cowardly people. Lovers of yellow get along easily with others because they are afraid of friction and argument. Lovers of yellow tend to betray their friends and loved ones. The reason why they are dishonest is probably that they prefer to lie or cheat.
 
The color blue is usually enjoyed by sad people who have a relatively low self-esteem, and who probably often suffer from depression. Lovers of blue believe in others rather than themselves.“Mr. X is so much better than I am” is a typical comment made by blue-lovers. One who chooses blue is probably more quiet or shy than one who prefers red or yellow. He is often drawn to sad movies, gloomy philosophies, and sad memories. This group of people would rather follow than lead, inactive to do everything.
 
Color psychology can be an interesting field in which to do some studies, but there is no proof to indicate that its findings are reliable.