(小学篇)2020年第12期:小学英语单元复习课教学思路微探(江苏:袁峥)

 
【摘  要】本文针对小学英语单元复习课的现状,结合课例探讨了单元复习课的教学思路,即基于单元内容的板块整合,源于复习主题的语言融合,始于学生能力的语言拓展,鉴于单元主题的线索串联,缘于现实生活的时事关注,旨在提升学生的综合语言运用能力。 
 
【关键词】单元复习课;单元板块;单元主体;单元话题 
 
 
译林版《英语》每册教材共有八个单元以及期中、期末两个Project每个单元围绕既定话题由七至八个板块组成其中Story TimeFun TimeCartoon TimeCheckout TimeTicking Time是五个固定板块Letter TimeSound TimeSong/Rhyme Time、Grammar Time及Culture Time五个板块因年段而异。多数教师对于新授板块尚能得心应手,但教授单元复习课时不是主次不明,就是重难点模糊,抑或结构混乱,复习效果甚微。
 
针对这一现状,我市开展了单元复习课观摩研讨活动,各区县的十余节课在各自教研团队集体智慧结晶的研磨下,体现了复习课教学的特色。通过对此次活动课例的梳理与归纳,我们提炼出了如下提升单元复习课效率的基本教学思路。
 
一、基于单元内容的板块整合
 
译林版《英语》(下同)教材按照“话题—结构—功能—任务”的模式编排,每个板块围绕单元话题以不同结构呈现相应的语言功能,完成既定语言运用任务。单元复习课可基于单元内容,将各板块重新整合进一个情节完整的故事中,引导学生在不同的情境中逐一完成各板块内容的复习。
 
[案例1]
 
四年级下册Unit 8 “How Are You?”是有关身体保健及电话用语的话题。某教师在所执教的单元复习课上,将Story Time(Yang Ling生病请假的对话)、Fun Time(电话用语玩游戏)、Sound Time(元音字母o在闭音节中的发音归纳)、Rhyme Time(标题为Doctor Wu的韵律小诗)、Checkout Time(对话排序)以及Ticking Time(单元评价)六个板块的内容融入一个完整故事情境中整合复习。板块教学的整合步骤如下:
 
首先,在Ticking Time板块的复习中,教师细化原有Ticking Time评价内容,使学生对复习目标一目了然。教师给学生呈现的学习目标(Learning Aims)如下:
 
(1) I can talk about illnesses.
 
① I can spell the words.
 
② I can ask and answer questions about illnesses correctly.
 
(2) I can make a telephone call.
 
① I know how to make a telephone call.
 
② I can call people politely.
 
(3) I know the sound of the letter “o”.
 
① I can tell the sounds of the words.
 
② I can read them well in sentences.
 
之后,在Story Time板块的复习中,通过Puzzle Time这一拼图游戏引导学生用“Maybe she's .../Perhaps she has ...”等句式看图猜测,并回答问题:What's the matter with Yang Ling? 从而引出headache、cough、toothache等单元目标单词音、形、义的复习。而后教师布置任务:Yang Ling has a cough and a headache. Can you give her some suggestions? 引导学生运用take care、stay in bed及drink some water等短语给Yang Ling提建议,这样就使Story Time板块中的疾病类单词及短语在此情节中得到巩固与运用。
 
在Fun Time和Rhyme Time板块的复习中,教师创设了Yang Ling通过电话求助Doctor Wu的情境,并向学生提问:How can they make a telephone call? 以此引导学生模拟Yang Ling和Doctor Wu的通话内容,复习“This is ... speaking./May I speak to ...?/Is that ... speaking?”等电话用语,以及“You should stay in bed/have a good rest/take some pills.”等建议,这样就将Fun Time板块中的游戏进行了模拟演练。接着,教师引导学生根据已有人物改编Rhyme Time中的小诗Doctor Wu并朗读。这样,两大板块的内容在同一情节中得以复现与活化。
 
在Sound Time板块的复习中,教师呈现Yang Ling与Doctor Wu的视频电话内容,引导学生选词补全对话(见图1)。这样的活动既复习了Sound Time 板块中元音字母o在闭音节单词中短音/ɔ/的发音,又拓展了字母o在开音节单词中发名称音/əu/这一语音现象,基于教材却又不止于教材,有效拓宽了学生的语音视域。
 
 图1
 
最后,在Checkout Time板块的复习中,教师引导学生思考:How did they make a telephone call? 帮助学生梳理电话语言的先后顺序,即自我介绍→询问病情→表达关心,继而指导学生续编故事:Yang Ling打电话给好朋友Su Hai,Su Hai询问Yang Ling的病情并表达关心。之后,教师引导学生完成Checkout Time板块的排序练习(见图2)。通过提前梳理对话语言的逻辑,有效提高了学生完成此排序题的正确率。
 
 
图2
 
整节课中,教师编织了“Yang Ling生病→提供休养建议→给Doctor Wu打电话→填补对话信息→同学问候”这一故事链,依次将Ticking Time、Story Time、Fun Time、Rhyme Time、Sound Time以及Checkout Time六个板块融入一个具有完整主题意义的情境中统整复习。
 
二、源于复习主题的语言融合
 
单元复习课需遵循两大要点:一是“理”,即系统梳理语言知识;二是“通”,即融会贯通语言技能,在语境中自如切换,灵活运用。教师应围绕复习主题深挖教学内容,激活学生已有知识,丰富话题表达内容与方式。
 
[案例2]
 
四年级上册Unit 1 I Like Dogs是有关动物的话题,目标语言为:I like ... Do you like ...? 若照本宣科,复习内容势必单调,表达方式也枯燥乏味。源于动物这一复习主题,考虑到学生的已有知识,某授课教师构思了五项动物相关信息(见图3),并通过以下环节逐一叠加呈现。
 
 

图3


在教学中,教师首先播放生活在不同场所的动物,并提问:Where do they live? 引导学生回答:They live in the zoo/in the forest/in a pet shop/on the farm.之后,通过让学生看剪影猜动物的形式,复习“I think I can see a ..., because it has a big mouth/two long ears/a short tail.”等句式。而后,用课件完整呈现上述剪影动物,引导学生复习操练以下句型:What's your favourite animal? I like ..., because it is small and cute/it can run fast. 最后,引领学生开展Still Image(静态影像)游戏,鼓励学生用肢体动作创作最喜爱的动物影像,并运用如下句式进行综合介绍:

 
Look at me. I am a ... (Name)
 
I live in/on/at ... (Place)
 
I have ..., ... and ... (Appearances)
 
I like ... and ... (Food)
 
I can ..., ... and ... (Abilities)
 
Do you like me? Let's make friends.
 
当学生的已有知识被激活后,他们的语言内容更为丰富,表达方式也更趋灵动和多样。
 
[案例3]
 
四年级下册Unit 5 Seasons以季节为主题,目标语言是一年四季的气候及相关活动。一位授课教师以一辆游览车畅游Season Park(Spring House、Summer House、Autumn House、Winter House)为主线,将一年四季之所见、所做、所穿、所食及所思融合于一次四季之旅中,活化复习课的活动形式。
 
在畅游Spring House的环节,教师用课件依次呈现春天的景象。师生对话如下:
 
T: What is spring like?
 
S1: It is warm and green.
 
T: What can you see in spring?
 
S2: I can see green trees/beautiful flowers/colourful kites/happy birds, ...
 
T: What can you do in spring?
 
S3: I can fly kites/go boating/have picnics/plant trees/...
 
接着,游览车行至Summer House,教师引导学生观察夏天景象的图片,尝试进行如下描述:Summer is hot, red and bright. We wear T-shirts, shorts, dresses and caps. We go swimming. We eat ice creams and watermelons. We drink orange juice and water. Summer is fun.
 
游览车行至Autumn House时,教师带领学生创编歌词演唱歌曲An Autumn Day,激活适合秋季活动的动词短语,如ride bikes、go climbing及pick apples等。
 
最后,游览车行至Winter House,师生以一首节奏与韵律兼具的韵律诗将冬季的气候特征、常穿服饰以及常见活动等短语融入其中。伴随着轻松、愉快的节奏,师生完成了一次四季之旅。该韵律诗的内容如下:
 
Winter is cold.
 
Winter is white.
 
Wear warm clothes.
 
Build a snowman.
 
Go skating.
 
Go sliding.
 
Throw snowballs.
 
Winter is fun.
 
上述两个案例中,教师均能源于单元复习主题,充分激活学生的相关语言知识与生活经验,丰富语言教学内容,引领学生灵活运用所学语言。教学环节层层递进,语言知识滚动递增,为提升学生的综合语言运用能力打下了基础。
 
三、始于学生能力的语言拓展
 
单元复习课应避免目标语言的简单重复,而应设置学生有能力达到的语言目标。
 
[案例4]
 
五年级下册 Unit 1 Cinderella的目标句型是特殊疑问句“Why ...?”及答语“Because ... ”。由于此类问答句型首次出现,板块新授时学生表达机会有限,语言输出明显存有瑕疵。某授课教师根据学生现有的语言能力,依次围绕三个童话故事开展此问答句的针对性复习。
 
Fairy Tale 1: Little Red Riding Hood
 
教师用课件呈现如下故事画面:小红帽看到乔装打扮成外婆的大灰狼时,心中疑窦丛生。为了指导学生归纳“Why + be动词”的用法,教师与学生创编了如下对话:
 
— Why are your ears so big?
 
— Because I want to hear you clearly.
 
— Why are your eyes so big?
 
— Because I want to see you better.
 
— Why is your mouth so big?
 
— Because I want to eat you!
 
— Why do you want to eat me?
 
— Because I'm hungry.
 
Fairy Tale 2: Monkey King
 
教师用课件呈现如下故事画面:天宫要举办蟠桃会,众仙们看到孙悟空正在桃园里疯狂偷吃蟠桃。针对此画面,教师引导学生创编众仙与孙悟空的对话,并归纳“Why +助动词/情态动词”的如下用法:
 
— Why does the monkey eat the peaches? You can't eat the peaches!
 
— Why can't I eat the peaches?
 
— Because they are for the party.
 
— Oh, a party! I want to go to the party.
 
Fairy Tale 3: Snow White
 
教师用课件呈现如下故事画面:白雪公主在七个小矮人的屋里醒来,双方都很惊讶。针对此画面,教师引导学生灵活运用所学特殊疑问句创编如下对话,综合复习运用各类特殊疑问句:
 
— Who are you?
 
— I'm Snow White.
 
— Where are you from?
 
— I'm from King Town.
 
— Why are you here now?
 
— Because the queen wants to kill me.
 
— Why does she want to kill you?
 
— Because I am beautiful.
 
— When do you leave here?
 
— Oh no! Can I stay here with you?
 
— All right. But what can you do here?
  
I can cook and clean the house for you.
 
该课例围绕三个童话故事的特定画面,既有针对性地复习和拓展了“Why + is/are/do/does/can't ...?”这一新授疑问句,又综合运用了其余各类特殊疑问词,所设复习目标处于学生的最近发展区内,因此易于学生在适切的语境中自如切换与运用语言知识与语用技能。
 
四、鉴于单元主题的线索串联
 
实施主题意义探究的阅读教学,要以主题为中轴,“以意义探究统揽教学内容和教学活动”(程晓堂,2018)。单元复习课中同样需要基于主题意义的串联活动,引导学生在主题意义统领的语境中运用所学语言。
 
[案例5]
 
五年级下册Unit 6 In the Kitchen的语言知识是“There be +可数/不可数名词”与现在进行时的一般疑问句形式。某授课教师以Kids' Food Festival为课时主题,以In the Kitchen这一单元主题为主场景,串联了三大故事线索,即Time to Prepare、Time to Cook和Time to Taste,引导学生在所设场景中复习运用所学语言。
 
在Time to Prepare环节中,教师创设的情境是:Miss Li带领同学们在厨房里忙碌着。Miss Li对学生说:Today is the Kids' Food Festival. Let's look in the fridge. 教师引导学生用“There is/are ... in it.”边说边将冰箱内的蔬果食品按照是否是可数名词进行归类整理。
 
Time to Cook环节的情境是:Now it's time to cook. 同学们正各司其职忙碌着,Mr Green来电询问Miss Li孩子们分别在做什么。教师引导学生观看Checkout Time板块的图片并创编两位老师间的通话内容,复习“What is Liu Tao/Mike ... doing? Is he/she ...?”等单元核心句型,在模拟语境中自然运用语言。
 
Time to Taste环节的情境是:一桌丰盛的菜肴在同学们的齐心协力下上桌了。教师指导学生用“Great! I can't wait. How is the ...? I like ..., because it is tasty/it looks yummy/it smells nice/it tastes delicious, but it's a bit sweet/salty/spicy for me. You're great cooks.”等语句自主表达。随后,教师展示一张中国美食地图,并提问:Do you like Chinese food? Why? 帮助学生了解祖国博大精深的饮食文化,渗透爱国主义情感。
 
整节课创新了复习课的语用情境,以Time to Prepare →Time to Cook→ Time to Taste这条故事线串联三大环节,层层递进,环环相扣,将零碎的目标语言整合进一个主题意义统领的语境中,激发了学生用英语做事情的兴趣和热情。
 
五、缘于现实生活的时事关注
 
英语课中语境的创设与其费力四处寻找素材,不如就地取材创设合适的语境。复习课中语境的创设同样可以利用当前的时事。
 
[案例6]
 
六年级下册Unit 2 Good Habits是有关习惯的话题,目标语言为副词。某教师在教学中就地取材,结合当下新冠疫情以“We Are Fighters!”为课时主题,通过介绍三大抗疫城市(武汉、南京、苏州)中学生的日常习惯,滚动复现所学语言,引导学生结合目前时事完成语用任务。
 
城市一:Liu Tao and Wang Bing are in Wuhan. They are fighters! What do they do at home? What are their good habits? 教师引导学生观看课件中循环播放的图片,试着说一说他们的生活习惯与学习习惯,如:It's a good habit to drink a lot of water every day/wash your hands very often/eat healthy food at every meal/get up early in the morning and never go to bed late/open the window and let fresh air in, ...
 
It's a good study habit to have online lessons carefully/think hard in class/read books very often/finish homework on time/ review lessons after class, ...
 
城市二:Su Hai and Su Yang are in Nanjing. They are fighters too! 教师首先指导学生完成Checkout Time板块中的第二个练习Listen and Choose,让学生结合听力选项口头描述姐妹俩的近况,培养学生的综合语言表达能力,如:Su Hai and Su Yang are good children. They are both fighters! They have many good habits. They get up at seven o'clock in the morning. They are good to their friends. They often help them with their homework. They keep their desks clean. But they have one bad habit. They often watch TV after school.
 
随后,教师引导学生完成Checkout Time板块中的第一个练习Look and Circle将练习答案迁移至关于姐妹俩的好习惯与坏习惯的表格中,复习并巩固副词的运用。学生在教师的指导下列出了如下表所示的好习惯与坏习惯的对比:
 
Good Habits
 
run fast every morning
 
walk slowly every evening
 
study hard at school
 
go to school early
Bad Habits
 
often watch TV
 
sing badly
 
get up late
 
 
 
城市三:We are in Suzhou. We are fighters! 教师引导学生借助老师呈现的自荐信模板,写出各自良好的生活与学习习惯,争当“苏城最美抗疫人”。教师给学生提供了如下语言支架,帮助学生完成写作任务。
 
Dear Teachers,
 
I am __________. I'm in Suzhou. I am a fighter!
 
I have many good habits. I always _______. It's _______ to _______. I always _______. It's a good study habit.
 
Good habits are important. They keep _______. They keep the virus away. We should form good habits. I believe I'm the best!
 
Sincerely yours, 
 
__________
 
该课例结合当下疫情,以“We Are Fighters!”为课时主题,通过三大城市/人物之间的切换,层层梳理与拓展目标语言,使学生如同身临其境,感同身受,深切体会到:Good habits keep us healthy/wealthy/the virus away!
 
以上有关单元复习课的教学思路聚焦单元话题,创设主题语境,整合相关板块,拓展目标语言,关注当下时事;避免填词造句、连词成句或句子翻译等脱离语境的纯应试复习,旨在引导学生通过层次分明的语言交际活动,了解在“什么时间、什么场合”对“什么人”用“什么方式和什么语言”去表达“什么意思”,以达到“什么目的”(杨敏,2020),从而彰显语言的交际意义,体现其工具性。
 
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参考文献
 
程晓堂. 2018. 基于主题意义探究的英语教学理念与实践[J]. 中小学外语教学(中学篇),(10):1-7.
 
杨敏. 2020. 小学英语单元复习课探微[J]. 小学教学设计(英语),(1):4-8.
 
译林出版社. 2013. 义务教育教科书·英语(三年级起点)四年级上册、四年级下册[T]. 南京:译林出版社.
 
译林出版社. 2014. 义务教育教科书·英语(三年级起点)五年级下册、六年级下册[T]. 南京:译林出版社.
 
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附作者信息:袁峥   江苏省苏州市教育科学研究院