(中学篇)2015年第08期:三维语法教学理念下的高中英语语法教学模式例析(安徽:殷兆慧;附PDF下载)

 
【摘  要】本文以Larsen-Freeman的三维语法教学理念(意义、形式和用法)为理据,结合具体的教学案例,阐述了基于呈现——探究——操练——输出四个环节的三维语法教学的具体操作方法,即在“先行组织者”中呈现——展现语法意义,在有意义的情境中探究——彰显语法形式,在操练中生成——明悉语法用法,在交际中输出——活用语法规则,旨在提升语法课的效能。
 
【关键词】 三维语法;语法教学;意义;形式;用法
 
  
一、引言
 
语法即语言的组织规律,它给予语言以结构系统。Wilkings(1976)指出,一种语言的语法系统的习得是语言学习中最重要的组成部分。语法是一个工具,利用这一工具,语言的创造能力会最终得以发展(转引自王勇,1997)。
 
语法教学是英语课堂的重头戏。然而纵观传统的语法课堂,教师花费大量时间讲授语言结构及规则,虽兼顾语意,但学生的语用能力未能提升。曹式耘(2012)提出,语法教学怎样才能不局限在语法的范畴内?怎样才能和培养逻辑思维联系起来?怎样与篇章情景联系起来?这些问题都有待探索与研究。Larsen-Freeman(2007)的三维语法教学理念为解决上述问题指明了方向。
 
二、三维语法教学理念阐释
 
Larsen-Freeman2007将语法(技能)界定为语言形成图式的动态过程之一,人们可以用它来表达适合语境的语意;并指出语法不仅是一种语言知识,更应被视为一种与听、说、读、写并行的技能,一种有意义的﹑动态的系统。
 
在此基础上,Larsen-Freeman提出了语法的三维体系,即形式﹑意义和用法,并进一步解释这三维的具体含意:形式即这个语言单位是如何构成的;意义即它表达什么意思(基本意义);用法即何时用,为什么要这样用。语法即由形式、意义和用法组成的完整的系统,三要素间相互作用、相互影响。形式的不同往往导致不同的意义和用法,语言形式的实时和历时变化往往影响其他两个方面;反过来,意义和用法也会对形式产生影响。
 
鉴于语法是一个动态的过程,形式、意义和用法均处在一个动态的开放系统之中,Larsen-Freeman(2009)认为语法教学首先应帮助学习者建构三维语法意识,不仅要让学习者注意或理解语法结构,而且还要训练他们有意义地、恰当地使用语法结构,以实现语法运用的自如化。鉴于目标语结构内在的复杂性以及学习者本身的特点,均会导致学习难点(形式、意义或用法)的变化,Larsen-Freeman(2007) 指出,教师可通过意识增强活动、输出练习及反馈策略等的运用对目标语的形式、意义和用法进行充分的外显教学。在此基础上,应随时界定学习难点(形式﹑意义或用法),有所侧重地教,在互动交流中教给学生探究语言的工具,从而发展其语法技能。
 
本文将以Larsen-Freeman的三维语法教学理念为理据,结合具体教学案例,阐述基于呈现——探究——操练——输出四个环节的语法三维教学的具体操作方法。具体来说,语法三维教学可通过如下教学活动来实现:在“先行组织者”中呈现——展现语法意义,在有意义的情境中探究——彰显语法形式,在操练中生成——明悉语法用法,在交际中输出——活用语法规则。
 
三、例析基于三维语法教学理念的语法教学模式
 
鉴于语法学习涉及形式、意义及用法三个层面,Larsen-Freeman(2007)认为在学习指定语言片段时,虽应把形式、意义和用法三方面的信息都呈现给学生,但在实际教学中,把学生的注意力集中在语言整体的某个方面的做法也是必要的。为此Larsen-Freeman提出了挑战性原则,即语言的三个方面总有一个是最难学的、最耗力费时的,教师应依据学生的母语以及目标语的学习水平有所侧重地教学。笔者将在下文中探讨语法三维教学的策略以及针对学习难点对某一要素进行优化教学的方法。
 
1.在“先行组织者”中呈现——展现语法意义
 
在呈现目标语法结构之前,教师可先于学习任务呈现一种引导性材料,以在新旧知识之间建立起一种“非人为、实质性的联系”,将新知识纳入学生原有的认知结构之中,这种引导性材料称之为“先行组织者”(陈琦、刘儒德,2007)。“先行组织者”包括两种类型:陈述性组织者和比较性组织者。陈述性组织者,即一段帮助学习者同化新知识的引导性材料。针对某一语法片段进行语法意义教学时,教师应遵循真实性、趣味性、内在关联性的原则,借助陈述性组织者材料促进学生对目标语法的理解。
 
以虚拟语气的教学为例,教学难点在于引导学生理解虚拟语气表达了什么意思。为了充分展现目标语法的意义,笔者首先呈现了一段充当陈述性组织者作用的材料——包含数个虚拟语气的诗歌片段。
 
If you were a teardrop
 
In my eye,
 
For fear of losing you
 
I would never cry.
 
And if the golden sun
 
Should cease to shine its light,
 
Just one smile from you
 
Would make my whole world bright.
 
 
在引领学生朗读小诗之后,笔者提问:
 
T: Is it possible for you to become a teardrop in the poet's eyes? Is it likely that the golden sun should cease to shine its light?
 
S: No. It's impossible.
 
T: Yes. It's a kind of assumption. If we want to express a condition or situation that is imaginary or not real, we can use unreal conditionals.
 
[评析] 以诗歌为陈述性组织者,引导学生思考“you were a teardrop in my eye”是事实还是假想的情境,将目标语法的教学与学生的认知体验融为一体,在激发学生兴趣的同时,也有助于学生接受和理解新的信息。
 
教师亦可通过比较性组织者,即借助一段辨识新旧知识的差异的引导性材料来展现目标语法的意义。以过去完成时的教学为例,学生在以往的学习中已掌握了现在完成时和一般过去时的形式、意义及用法。在过去完成时的教学中,某教师以一篇介绍莫言的文章(见下框)作为比较性组织者从意义上对三种时态进行比较,从而凸显过去完成时的语法意义,促进学生顺利理解和习得目标语法。教学过程如下:
 
On Oct 11th, 2012, the Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to Mo Yan. Therefore, Mo Yan has been the first Chinese writer to have the honour so far. His competitor was Haruki Murakami from Japan.
 
Mo Yan is a very hardworking writer. He had received lots of prizes before he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. After Mo Yan wrote Red Sorghum, the famous director Zhang Yimou made it into a movie. Finally this movie got the 38th Berlin International Festival's Golden Bear Award in 1988.
 
After the big news, all the books of Mo Yan have become quite popular in China and many other countries. Several of his works have sold out in the last two months. However, an interesting fact is that, according to an online survey, many Chinese had not known his name before he got the award.
 

T: First let's read this passage about Mo Yan. While you read the passage, please think about the following questions:Who has been the first Chinese writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature so far? What award did the movie Red Sorghum get in the 38th Berlin International Festival in 1988?
 
S1: Mo Yan has been the first Chinese writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature so far.
 
S2: The movie Red Sorghum got the 38th Berlin International Festival's Golden Bear Award in 1988.
 
T: Great. As you can see in the above two sentences, we use the simple past tense to talk about a past action and we use the present perfect tense to talk about a past action that lasts till now. But when we want to talk about something that happened at an earlier time in the past, what kind of tense can we use? Can you show me any example?
 
S1: The past perfect tense. Mo Yan had received lots of prizes before he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
 
S2: Many Chinese had not known his name before he got the award.
 
T: Good.
 
[评析] Krashen(1982)认为,可理解性输入是语言习得的根本及必要条件。在进行语义教学时,教师应以“可理解性、趣味与关联、非语法程序和足够的输入量”(Krashen, 1982)为原则,借助“先行组织者”呈现目标语法的意义,并通过陈述性组织者与比较性组织者的运用,帮助学生建立内化新知识的认知框架,促进其自觉地对输入的语言信息进行加工。
 
2.在有意义的情境中探究——彰显语法形式
 
针对语法形式的教学, Larsen-Freeman(2007)对传统语法课堂中孤立地教学语言形式的做法予以了否定。她强调在有意义的语境中,通过间接的教学手段引导学生关注特定的语法形式,并通过形式和意义的匹配,最终习得目标语法结构。教师可在有意义的情境中通过输入强化、意识增强任务、协作性对话、教育性会话等教学手段提升语法形式的教学效果。
 
在Fotos(2002)看来,意识增强任务,即在学习活动具有真实交际性的同时,在学习内容上体现出所要求掌握的语法形式的使用。这种以外显知识意识强化为目的的学习任务旨在促使学习者注意到所要求掌握的某个(些)语法结构,以提高对该语言形式的意识。然后学习者再参与一系列活动,如教师关于该语法形式的讲解、适量的语言输出练习以及含有该语法结构的交互性交际练习等,以进一步强化语法意识(转引自戴炜栋、任庆梅,2006)。
 
以意识增强任务在with复合结构的教学中的运用为例,笔者首先向学生呈现以下问题:On Christmas Eve, when everyone is celebrating this holiday, a little girl with lots of matches to sell is walking along the street. Can you guess who that little girl with tears in her eyes is?
 
待学生回答以上问题之后,笔者以卖火柴的小女孩的故事为素材,引导学生阅读一段包含大量with复合结构的语篇。为了提升学生对目标语言的关注度,笔者用下划线来突出语篇的语法特征。 
 
On Christmas Eve, a poor little girl with feet bare was still walking along the street. With the light on, the rich were celebrating Christmas. With lots of matches to sell, the little girl didn't know what to do. She sat there with her arms clasped around her knees. The girl was very cold and hungry. She struck a match. With her eyes looking at the sky, she saw a warm room with delicious food on the table.
 
接着,笔者引导学生分析以上阅读材料,让学生通过小组讨论的形式探究以上语篇中哪些词或短语充当了with的复合宾语,并进一步剖析to do/doing/done作with的复合宾语时在用法上的区别(见下框)。 
 
With + O+ adj/n/adv/prepositional phrase/to do(将来)/doing(主动)/done(被动)
 
   
在此基础上,笔者以灰太狼向红太狼求婚的故事为背景,向学生提供了另一个语篇(见下框)。该语篇中含有多处与目标语法形式相关的错误。笔者引导学生通过对话协商的方式找出语篇中的错误。
 
Correct the mistakes in the following passage.
 
With New Year come on, the grey wolf decided to have a date with the red wolf. He would like to give the red wolf a surprise so he bought a bunch of roses. With the bunch of roses in his hand, he couldn't help proposing to the red wolf. When the red wolf knew his intention, she seemed to reject his proposal with her head was down. However, with one minute gone before New Year, she accepted the grey wolf's proposal with her face red. With fireworks setting off, they kissed each other.
 
  
最后,笔者鼓励学生发挥想象利用with的复合结构对该故事文本进行重构,并以小组表演或汇报的形式展示改编后的故事。
 
[评析]以意识增强任务促进语言形式的教学可通过如下步骤实施:首先教师引导学生阅读含有目标语法的语篇,教师可通过输入流(嵌入大量目标语言形式的输入材料)及篇章强化手段(如斜体字、粗体字、下划线等)凸显语篇中的某些语言特征。接着教师引导学生通过合作探究的方式分析语篇材料,总结语法规则,促使学生形成关于该语法的外显知识。在此基础上,教师借助嵌入大量目标语法的语篇改错等题型,通过提问、修正、澄清等外显否定反馈手段帮助学生在大脑中构建目标语法形式的外显表征。最后教师通过语言输出任务促使学生自如地运用目标语法形式。
 
3.在操练中生成——明悉语法用法
 
根据信息加工理论,语言学习过程中学习者需要经过控制性信息加工和自动性信息加工两个阶段,前者需要学习者大量的注意力,后者无需学习者的注意力。然而,信息处理由控制性阶段达到自动化阶段,需要有大量的操练予以保障和促进,这样才能在长时记忆中建立起相对稳定的联络结构。从联结理论的角度讲,操练可以加强中枢网络终节点间的联系,使以后提取知识更为容易(Larsen-Freeman,2007)。
 
在教学实践中,教师可通过以下两种方式对目标语法进行操练:以情境为依托,在交际中操练;以时间轴为线索,在协作中操练。在操练中促使学生明悉语法用法,实现目标语法的自如运用。
 
(1)以情境为依托,在交际中操练
 
传统语法教学通常只在句子层面对语法知识进行讲解和操练(Stern,1983)。此方法单调而枯燥,教学效果不佳。若能以学生的兴趣为出发点,以情境为依托,在师生、生生交流互动中操练,则有助于学生明悉目标语法的用法。
 
例如,在表示过去虚拟的非真实条件句的教学中,笔者以电影Titanic的故事情境为依托,以Rose和Jack的爱情发展为主线,对目标语法进行操练。伴随着歌曲My Heart Will Go On的动人旋律,笔者向学生说道:Even though years have passed, the love between Rose and Jack is still deeply buried in our heart. In this class, let's review this romantic love. 
 
T: (呈现图1) At the beginning of this film, Jack won a ticket in a poker game, so he was on board. But we can tell this story in another way. If Jack hadn't won a ticket in a poker game, he would not have been on board. If Jack hadn't been on board, he wouldn't have met Rose. After Jack met Rose, can you guess what happened?  
 
 
                             1. won a ticket                   2. on board                             3. met Rose 
 
Pictures 1-2: If Jack hadn't won a ticket in a poker game, he would not have been on board.
 
Pictures 2-3: If he had not been on board, he wouldn't have met Rose.
 
 图1
 
S: He fell in love with her.
 
T: OK. Jack fell in love with Rose after he met her. So we can put it in another way. If Jack hadn't met Rose, he wouldn't have fallen in love with her. Could you follow the above examples and use unreal conditionals to describe the plot of the film Titanic according to the following pictures and key words (呈现图2)?  
 
 
                               3.met Rose                           4. fell in love                       5. struck the iceberg
 
 
                               6. sank                    7. fell into the freezing water                      8. Jack died
 
图2
 
S1: If Jack hadn't met Rose, he wouldn't have fallen in love with her.
 
S2: If the Titanic hadn't struck the iceberg, it wouldn't have sunk.
 
S3: If the Titanic hadn't sunk, Jack and Rose wouldn't have fallen into the freezing water.
 
S4: If Jack and Rose hadn't fallen into the freezing water, Jack wouldn't have died.
 
[评析] 在对目标语法的形式和意义充分地显性教学之后,笔者借助图片展示、关键词提示等方法创设情境,在师生、生生的交际互动中引导学生领会目标语法的用法,在操练中强化了学生语言反应的自觉性。
 
(2)以时间轴为线索,在协作中操练
 
过去完成时的教学难点在于引导学生理解其用法。为了突破难点,笔者将此语法点的教学与文本解读融为一体。译林版《牛津高中英语》教材Module 3 Unit 2 English and Its History一文讲述了英语发展的历程,文本中出现了大量的年代及事件。笔者以年代为轴线,以事件为主线,引导学生绘制时间轴,继而运用过去完成时重述英语的发展史及其各发展阶段的特征。这既深化了对文本的解读,也达成了在真实而有意义的情境中操练过去完成时的目标。
 
为了凸显操练主题,笔者以时间轴为线索(见图3),依据英语发展的三个阶段,即古英语、中世纪英语以及现代英语,分别设置了汇报演讲、名人访谈和角色扮演三项任务。以第一项任务为例,笔者首先将全班分为三组,接着按时间顺序依次呈现动词spoke、occupied、moved、became;然后运用过去完成时写出以下句子:Before two Germanic groups occupied Britain, people in Britain had all spoken a language called Celtic. 继而以组为单位,引导学生通过句子接龙的方式运用过去完成时说出更多类似的句子。最后每组组长以汇报的形式向全班同学讲述古英语的发展历程及主要特征。 
 
 
 
图 3
 
[评析] 时间轴是一条按照时间顺序将事件串联起来的轴线。教师在进行时态教学时,可借助历史文体、传记等时间脉络清晰的语篇,利用时间轴展示事件的先后顺序,通过设置汇报演讲、名人访谈和角色扮演等兼具趣味性和挑战性的任务,引导学生理解各种时态的用法,并就此展开操练,让学生在语篇中感受、运用目标语法。                   
 
4.在交际中输出——活用语法规则
 
Larsen-Freeman(2009)认为,语法教学的目标在于“使学习者能够自动地运用语法达成交际目的”。而以交际为目的的输出任务能“提高学习者的语言流利程度;加快自动化,解放注意力资源;引起知识重组,修正和重组内部表征”(Larsen-Freeman,2007)。在此基础上,Larsen-Freeman(2007)指出合适的输出练习必须满足两个标准:“输出活动必须是有意义的,能够吸引学习者的注意力;输出活动应关注学习难点,包括形式、意义或用法上的难点。”
 
教师在教学中可通过创设有意义的任务,引导学生在交际活动中运用目标语法交流思想,与此同时通过交际性输出任务强化三维语法学习的难点,以引起学生对语言问题的注意,为目标语法表达的自动化奠定基础。
 
以现在完成进行时输出环节的任务设置为例,从语法教学的三要素来看,目标语法的学习难点在于其用法,尤其是其与一般过去时、现在完成时在用法上的区别。在输出环节,为了提升学生在具体的语境中有效使用目标语法进行交流的能力,笔者以高中的精彩生活为情境,设置了角色扮演的采访活动。
 
笔者首先呈现了学生参加军训、英语戏剧表演和运动会时的图片,并对学生说:Our school has arranged various activities in this semester. Could you describe what happened according to the photos?(学生思考) Mary, your former classmate, is now working as a journalist for her school magazine. After enjoying these photos in your microblog, she wants to carry out an interview and know more about your new life in high school. Please work in pairs to carry out the interview. Pay attention to the tenses used in your interview, especially the present perfect continuous tense.
 
学生结对进行采访,以下是一组学生的采访稿:
 
Student A: Mary (M)         Student B: I
 
M: I'm greatly impressed by your new high school life. What are the school activities that have been organized up till now?
 
I:  Up till now, our school has organized various activities. In August, we received military training. A month later, our school held an English drama show.Then, our first sports meeting in high school was held as scheduled.
 
M: Fantastic. Which activity has left the deepest impression on you?
 
I:  The English drama show. You know, I was shy in the past. It was the first time that I have participated in a competition like this, and I benefited a lot from it.
 
M: What did you learn from this experience?
 
I:  To be successful, one should be confident. Since I participated in the English drama show, I have become more confident. Now I intend to take part in the English debating competition. I have been working hard for almost a month.
 
M: I believe you can make it.
 
...
 
 
 
[评析] 教师通过设置适切的交际性输出任务,既可引发学生对语法形式的关注,增强其对语法形式的敏感度,又可在语篇中强化学生对目标语法的功能和意义的理解,为目标语法运用的自动化创造条件。
 
四、教学反思及建议
 
1. 精心选择含有目标语法的语料,创设真实而有意义的情境
 
 Krashen(1982)认为,理解是内化语言输入的前提;当学习者所接触的语言形式略高于其现有水平时,该语言形式就能够被理解,继而内化产生语言习得。学习者理解所输入的语言材料有两条途径:一是学习者利用语境;二是教师对提供的输入进行简化。语境信息及简化了的输入材料可使学习者将注意力集中到语言交流的意义上。借助社会性的交际活动运用可理解性的语言输入材料,学习者便可自然而然地习得语言。
 
如何给予学生充分的可理解性的语言输入是高中英语语法教学的关键。课前教师应精心选择含有目标语法的语料,在课中将语法融入到交际课堂,不断地创设真实而有意义的情境,引导学生理解、加工、内化并产出目标语法。若学生能在相对真实的情境中感受、理解、运用和内化目标语法,将有助于他们掌握语言的形式,并升华其对语言的功能和意义的领会。
 
2. 情境活动设计以学生为中心
 
夏谷鸣(2012)指出,语法教学有两个目的:一是培养学生的语法意识;二是为听、说、读、写的技能的发展提供支持,为交际能力的培养打下语言基础。教师在设计语法教学的情境活动时要充分考虑学生的已有知识能力和心理特征,以学生为中心,在精心选择真实而有意义的语料的同时,兼顾话题的趣味性,通过话题的变换和活动的变换以及课堂组织形式的变换,充分调动学生学习的积极性和主动性;同时将语法学习与听、说、读、写等技能结合起来,真正地让学生成为任务的主角,促进语法知识的内化和语言技能的提升。
 
3. 在活动与任务中习得语法知识,提升语言技能
 
在Larsen-Freeman(2007)看来,语法教学是一个有机的、动态的过程。她提出把语法作为听、说、读、写以外的第五种语言技能。在学生对语言知识进行存储的同时,教师应努力提升学生用语言做事情的能力。
 
在语法教学活动中,教师可秉承真实性、情景性、合作性、阶梯性的原则,围绕某个有意义的交际话题,以活动或任务为核心开展语法教学。首先教师可通过设置以结构为基础的产出性任务引导学生在交际情境中大量地接触目标语法的形式;然后通过意义协商等交际活动引导学生建立目标语法的形式与意义的联结;继而以理解性的任务引导学生在真实情境中掌握目标语法的用法;最后通过以意义为中心的语言输出任务强化形式、意义及用法的联系,为目标语法在交际情境中的自主运用创造条件。

本文作者声明:未经本人及北京师范大学中小学外语教学编辑部书面同意,任何媒体不得转载或摘编本文。
 
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Krashen, S. D. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition [M]. New York: Pergamon Press Ltd.
 
Larsen-Freeman, D. (著),董奇(译). 2007. 语言教学:从语法到语法技能 [M]. 北京:北京师范大学出版社.
 
Larsen-Freeman, D. 2009. Teaching and testing grammar [A]. In M. Long & C. Doughty (Eds.), The Handbook of Language Teaching [C]. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. 518-542.
 
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王勇. 1997. Consciousness Raising在语法教学中的作用与运用[J]. 国外外语教学,(3):8-12.   
 
夏谷鸣. 2012. 英语教学之语法教学模式、方法及原则[EB/OL]. http://yy.fjjcjy.com/QianYanLiLun/2012-07/1372.htm, 2012-7-1.
 
译林出版社. 2010. 普通高中课程标准实验教科书·牛津高中英语模块3(必修模块)[T]. 南京:译林出版社.
 
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附作者信息:殷兆慧    安徽省铜陵县第一中学   
 
 

  

 

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