(中学篇)2017年第04期:例谈读后续写中关键词的作用及其运用策略(浙江:凌勇;附PDF下载)

  
【摘  要】本文以教育部考试中心《普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语科考试说明》中的样题为例,分析了读后续写题中的关键词在统一评价标准、获取短文信息、预设续写情节和丰富续写内容四个方面的作用,并以2016年10月浙江省高考英语读后续写真题为例,提出了读后分类关键词、写前分配关键词和写中回顾关键词的策略。
 
【关键词】读后续写;读写教学;以读促写;话题;关键词 
 
 
 
一、引言
 
高考英语写作新题型——读后续写要求学生在阅读一篇350词左右的短文后,根据短文内容、两个续写段落的开头语和短文中的10个关键词续写一篇150词左右的短文,所续写短文和阅读短文须具有逻辑衔接,结构完整,同时能准确使用5个以上的关键词(教育部考试中心,2015)。在读后续写教学中,许多教师能指导学生获取所读文本的主要信息,并根据续写段落开头语构思续写内容,但是对续写关键词的作用及其运用策略缺乏研究与指导。本文将以《普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语科考试说明》(教育部考试中心,2015;以下简称《考试说明》)中的读后续写样题为例,分析读后续写关键词的作用,并以2016年10月浙江省英语高考读后续写真题(以下简称“10月真题”)为例,提出读后续写关键词的运用策略。
 
二、读后续写中关键词的作用
 
1.关键词有助于统一评价标准
 
读后续写把阅读的语言输入和写作的语言输出整合在同一语境中,为学生提供模仿并运用所学语言的机会,有利于培养学生的创造性思维(凌勇,2016)。读后续写的主要文体通常为故事类文本,其话题贴近生活,有一定趣味性,想象空间大(刘庆思、陈康,2016)。但是,故事类文本独有的情节发展多元性给续写评价带来了困难。因此,高考读后续写题型提供了10个关键词(块), 并要求学生至少使用其中的5个,这能给续写评价增加参照性,有利于阅卷老师在一定程度上统一阅卷标准,符合高考具有的常模参照性测试特点(许华琳,2004)。
 
2.关键词有助于获取短文信息
 
由于读后续写要求学生将所读短文扩展成一篇与给定材料有逻辑衔接、情节和结构完整的短文,且需运用5个以上所给关键词,因此关键词必然能够反映故事主要内容,传递短文信息。以《考试说明》中所给样题为例,样题中所给的10个关键词包含了记叙文的基本要素,即故事的地点: Park Avenuethe bank;人物: the young manthe bank thief;主要矛盾及情节发展载体: suitcases、 in the back seat、 loud noise of an alarm、 robbery、 people、 the shouts,基本上涵盖了短文的主要内容。通读短文后,将关键词进行合理串接,就能比较准确地获取短文主要信息: Arthur met a young man at Park Avenue in front of a bank and offered to help him carry the suitcases in the back seat to a taxi. When Arthur heard the loud noise of an alarm from the bank and the shouts of people, he believed there was a robbery. Afraid of being regarded as the bank thief, he ran away with the suitcase. 
 
3.关键词有助于预设续写情节
 
由于关键词包含记叙文基本要素,且其使用是续写评价的重要标准,因此短文中的关键词能服务于续写情节的预设,即在通读短文获取大意,并结合段落开头语判定故事情节发展方向后,可以借助续写关键词预设续写情节。例如,《考试说明》 中的样题提供了“As he was running, Arthur heard the young man shouting behind, Stop, stop!”和 “The taxi stopped in front of the Police Station and Arthur ...”两句段落的开头语,由此可以判断第一段的主要续写方向为: Arthur didn't stop but took a taxi to the Police Station. 而第二段的续写内容应指向全文第一句话: A funny thing happened to Arthur when he was on the way to work one day. 根据这一续写思路,可以借助续写关键词预设两个续写段落的故事情节(见表1)。
 
          表1 预设的续写情节
Para
Story-line
Plots with key words
1
What did Arthur do?
took a taxi with the suitcase in the back seat
What did he think about on the way to the Police Station?
loud noise of an alarm; there was a robbery in the bank; the young man must be the bank thief; went to the Police Station; gave the suitcase to the police
2
What did the police find in the suitcase?
 
some maintenance tools and a staff ID card; the young man was an electrician who worked in the bank
What was the result?
a funny misunderstanding; there was no robbery in the bank, but a fire alarm was set off; Arthur said sorry; praised for his bravery
  
4.关键词有助于丰富续写内容
 
关键词除了对续写内容的预设有支撑作用外,还能通过激活相关话题词汇,使续写内容更丰富,描写更生动。例如,《考试说明》样题中的续写关键词可以激活学生以下话题词汇(见表2),进而丰富续写的内容。
 
表2 续写内容的相关话题词汇
Key words
Vocabularies on the topics
Park Avenue, the bank
a busy avenue, crowded, lots of people, tall buildings, many cars, work in the bank, lots of money, the bank manager, get terrified ...
the young man, the bank thief, robbery
steal, a large sum of money, frightened, run away, be caught, a gun, a misunderstanding, his own money ...
suitcases, in the back seat
heavy, money in it, books in the suitcase, a taxi, the taxi driver, drive as fast as he can, nervous, call the police ...
loud noise of an alarm, people, the shouts
frightened, scared, set off by, run away, because of, catch the thief, a misunderstanding ...
  
三、续写中关键词的运用策略
 
基于上述对续写关键词作用的分析,笔者在读后续写教学中对学生进行了续写关键词的运用策略指导,现以“10月真题”为例,具体阐述关键词的运用策略。真题如下:
 
One weekend in July, Jane and her husband, Tom, had driven three hours to camp overnight by a lake in the forest. Unfortunately, on the way an unpleasant subject came up and they started to quarrel. By the time they reached the lake, Jane was so angry that she said to Tom, “I'm going to find a better spot for us to camp” and walked away.
 
With no path to follow, Jane just walked on for quite a long time. After she had climbed to a high place, she turned around, hoping to see the lake. To her surprise, she saw nothing but forest and, far beyond, a snowcapped mountain top. She suddenly realized that she was lost.
 
“Tom!” she cried. “Help!”
 
No reply. If only she had not left her mobile phone in that bag with Tom. Jane kept moving, but the farther she walked, the more confused she became. As night was beginning to fall, Jane was so tired that she had to stop for the night. Lying awake in the dark, Jane wanted very much to be with Tom and her family. She wanted to hold him and tell him how much she loved him.  
 
Jane rose at the break of day, hungry and thirsty. She could hear water trickling(滴落)somewhere at a distance. Quickly she followed the sound to a stream. To her great joy, she also saw some berry bushes. She drank and ate a few berries. Never in her life had she tasted anything better. Feeling stronger now, Jane began to walk along the stream and hope it would lead her to the lake.  
 
As she picked her way carefully along the stream, Jane heard a helicopter. Is that for me? Unfortunately, the trees made it impossible for people to see her from above. A few minutes later, another helicopter flew overhead. Jane took off her yellow blouse, thinking that she should go to an open area and flag them if they came back again.
 
1.读后分类关键词,获取短文大意
 
 学生在通读短文后,应按记叙文基本要素分类关键词,快速获取短文大意。
 
“10月真题”提供了Jane、Tom、lake、walked、climbed、at a distance、stream、to her great joy、helicopter和yellow blouse这10个关键词,笔者指导学生按记叙文基本要素分类如下(见表3):
 
表3 关键词的分类
人物
Jane、Tom
地点
lake、stream、at a distance
动作
walked、 climbed
事物
helicopter、yellow blouse
心理
to her great joy
  
学生在分类关键词后,快速获取所读短文的大意:
 
Jane and her husband Tom went camping near a lake; Jane walked into the forest alone and got lost. She climbed to a high place and later found a stream at a distance but still couldn't get back. To her great joy, she heard a helicopter and she decided to wave her yellow blouse in an open area. 
 
2.写前分配关键词,激活话题词汇
 
“10月真题”提供了“But no more helicopters came and it was getting dark again. Jane ...”和“It was daybreak when Jane woke up.”两个续写段落的开头语,笔者指导学生结合段落开头语和关键词构思两个续写段落的主要内容,然后将关键词分配到两个段落中,避免续写时难以兼顾关键词的运用。由于读后续写的两个段落在故事情节发展中分别侧重过程描述和结局陈述,因此续写前关键词的分配也应在统筹兼顾的基础上有所侧重:即在第一段续写中侧重使用描述过程的关键词,而在第二段续写中可使用对故事结局起决定作用或概括作用的关键词。因此,“10月真题”的关键词可根据续写段落大意作以下分配(见表4):
 
表4 关键词在两个段落中的分配
Para
Main idea
Key words
1
Jane got a good idea.
Jane, Tom, lake, stream, walked, climbed
2
Jane was rescued by a helicopter.
helicopter, yellow blouse, at a distance, to her great joy
  
在预设续写情节、分配关键词后,学生可围绕关键词进一步激活话题词汇,丰富续写内容。例如,第一段关键词激活的相关话题词汇见表5。
 
表5 第一段关键词激活的话题词汇
第一段的开头语:But no more helicopters came and it was getting dark again. Jane ...
第一段大意:Jane got a good idea.
Jane, Tom
Jane missed Tom; felt regretful; all the sweet memories came flooding back; they had a good time when camping in the forest ...    
lake, stream
tried to find the lake; walk along the stream; cried and washed her face; rested by the stream ...
walked,
 
climbed
walked aimlessly; climbed to the top of a tall tree ...
  
第二段关键词激活的相关话题词汇见表6。
 
表6 第二段关键词激活的话题词汇
第二段开头语:It was daybreak when Jane woke up.
第二段大意:Jane was rescued by a helicopter.
helicopter
a helicopter appeared and flew in her direction
yellow blouse
waved her yellow blouse
at a distance
a helicopter at a distance came into her sight
to her great joy
to her great joy, it didn't miss her this time; Tom hugged her
  
3.写中回顾关键词,模仿运用语言
 
Ellis(1994)发现在续写过程中,为了在话题、思维和用语上与所读文章保持风格和逻辑上的统一,学习者会不断回读短文,引起语言认知,激发认知比较,产生语言协同效应。王初明(2012)认为,无论在学习二语结构的基础学习阶段,还是在揣摩英语为母语者的语言表达方式的高级阶段,英语学习都离不开模仿。因此,教师应指导学生在续写中回顾关键词,通过模仿运用规避词语的重复使用,但又能保持用语风格的统一。例如,在使用关键词climb时,学生回读原文语句“After she had climbed to a high place, she turned around, hoping to see the lake.”,就能关注到climb to a high place的原文语言结构,在续写中可以模仿运用climb to a tall tree、climb to a big rock、climb to the top of the mountain等语言。又如,针对关键词at a distance,原文为“She could hear water trickling somewhere at a distance.”,学生通过认知比较,可以构思hear/see/discover/notice/spot something at a distance,使续写内容充实,且关键词运用恰当。
 
笔者针对关键词的运用策略进行指导后,有学生写出如下习作:
 
But no more helicopters came and it was getting dark again. Jane stopped walking aimlessly and rested under a tree by the stream. There was only the song of the insects for company and all the sweet memories came flooding back. Jane could well remember that one summer day she and Tom climbed to the top of a tall tree to rescue a wounded baby bird. Yes! Climb! After trying hard, Jane was on the top of a tall tree. So tired was she that she soon fell asleep on a huge branch of the tree.
 
It was daybreak when Jane woke up. She looked around, trying to find the lake. Sadly, there were only trees everywhere. She was about to climb down when a red spot at a distance came into her sight with a great noise. A helicopter! Jane waved her yellow blouse! To her great joy, it flew in her direction and didn't miss her this time. When it dropped down a rope ladder from which Tom climbed down, Jane burst into tears.
 
四、结语
 
关键词的有效运用不是孤立的,必须建立在续写内容符合段落开头语导向并与短文情节发展有一定逻辑关系的基础上,既不可忽视关键词的作用,也不能仅依靠关键词展开续写,否则容易出现关键词运用缺失或续写内容与所给短文逻辑脱节的现象。另外,所读短文中除画线的10个关键词外,还存在对有效续写起支撑和导向作用的非画线关键词。读后续写中非画线关键词的确定和运用策略仍需作进一步研究。
 
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参考文献
 
Ellis, R. 1994. Implicit/explicit knowledge and language pedagogy [J]. TESOL Quarterly, 28(1): 166-172.
 
教育部考试中心. 2015. 普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语科考试说明(高考综合改革试验省份使用)(第一版)[M]. 北京:人民教育出版社.
 
凌勇. 2016. 读后续写的教学策略[J]. 中小学外语教学(中学篇),(6):31-35.
 
刘庆思,陈康. 2016. 关于一年两考高考英语试卷中读后续写设计的研究[J]. 中小学外语教学(中学篇),(1):1-6.
 
王初明. 2012. 读后续写——提高外语学习的一种有效方式[J]. 外语界,(5):2-7.
 
许华琳. 2004. 常模参照性测试与尺度参照性测试比较[J]. 宁波大学学报(教育科学版),(3):79-81.
 
浙江省教育考试院. 2016. 2016年10月浙江省普通高中学业水平考试《英语》 试题[J]. 浙江考试,(10):46-53.
 
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注:本文涉及的读后续写样题可从以下网址浏览:www.flts.cn/node/912
  
附作者信息: 凌勇   浙江省湖州市吴兴高级中学 
 
 

    

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