(中学篇)2017年第07期:英语语法教学中语料的选编和积累(上海:陈琼;附PDF下载)

  
【摘  要】自从Larsen-Freeman提出了语法技能(grammaring) 理论后,语法教学已逐渐从传统的句子模式上升到语篇层次和真实的语境中,并服务于学生交际能力的培养。本文探讨了语法教学中语料选取和改编的基本原则和途径,以及语言材料积累的方法,从而建立起符合学情的语料资源库,提高语法教学效率。 
 
 
【关键词】语法教学;语法技能;三维框架;语料;语料库
 
 
 
一、 Larsen-Freeman的语法教学观
 
语法作为语言知识体系中的重要组成部分,长久以来都是英语学习与教学的核心。随着语言学理论及教学研究的深入,人们对语法的认知和对语法教学的实践也经历了不断的变革与发展。美国语言学家Larsen-Freeman (2003) 创新地提出了语法技能的概念。 语法技能是指学习者准确、有意义且得体地使用所学的语法知识和结构的能力,是与听、说、读、写并行且关联的另一种语言技能。她认为,语法不能被看作是离散的、无意义的、脱离语境的语言形式规则,由此她提出语法结构的三维框架,即形式(form)、意义(meaning) 和运用(use)。
 
传统语法教学把语法规则的描写和解释局限于句子层面,但句子层面的语法是形式的、抽象的、脱离具体语境的,未能将学习者和语法带入交际语境中,带入真实的话语运用中(Celce-Murcia & Olshtain, 2000)。 Larsen-Freeman (2002) 坚持语法教学应该跨越句子,将教学的方向转移到更高的语篇层次,让学习者在对语篇的观察和分析中学习以交际为目的的语法知识以及语法的语篇构建作用,从而学会恰当地运用语法,实现成功的交际。
 
以语篇为载体进行语法教学首要任务是挑选语篇。在当下信息大爆炸的时代,能成为潜在教学材料的语言素材数不胜数。如何从海量的语言材料中筛选出适用于语法教学、符合学习者学情的语料,是教师必须考虑的重要问题。
 
二、语法语料的选取
 
语料是语言教材的基础,是体现语法功能、实现语言交际的“血肉”。 一般来说,语料是指用于任何研究的语言材料集合,即大规模的语言实例,可长可短,可大可小,以口头或书面形式出现。为了更好地落实语篇语法教学,教师需以教学内容为基础,以教学目标为导向,遵循以下五个原则,寻找合适的语法语料。
 
1.语料的真实性
 
语料的真实性与真实语料是不同概念。语料可分为真实语料和非真实语料。前者指以英语为母语的人们在真实的交际场景中使用的口头或书面语言,包括日常对话、电视节目、原版报刊、英美文学原著选段等;后者指教材编者对选取的真实语料进行深加工后的语言材料,或者是完全由教材编者根据某一目的自己撰写的语言材料(孙东晖、孙迎晖,2007)。这两种都可作为语法教学语料,但重要的是,所选语料要考虑学习者水平和学习需求,从而实现语料的真实性(张逸,1998)。语料的真实性体现在所选材料能在不同程度上向学生展示真实语言环境里的各种信息,丰富学生在生活场景中所需要的词汇和语法,让学生在获取相关知识的同时学到地道、得体的语言。
 
[案例1]
 
if虚拟条件句用于表达不能实现或假想的情况。 当表示对过去事实的假想时, if从句中谓语动词用过去完成式,主句用“情态动词+have done”形式。 以下语料选自“Boost! Grammar” (Student Book, Level 4):
 
Historical Fact: Ferdinand Magellan was a famous Portuguese sailor, who found a way to sail right around the world in one voyage. He set out from Spain in 1519 with five ships and around 270 men. He sailed to South America and eventually found a way to reach the Pacific Ocean. From there, he sailed northwest until he reached the Philippines. Unfortunately, he died there. After his death, his crew left and sailed back to Spain. However, the trip was very difficult and when they arrived, they only had one ship and 18 men left.
 
Sam's comment: If I had been Magellan, I would have done things differently. First, I would have taken more than five ships. If you want to go around the entire world, you need to take a lot of supplies. Second, If I had reached the Pacific, I would have sailed west, not northwest. Then I would have discoveredNew Zealand and Australia. While exploring these lands, I would have been very careful so nothing happened to me or my crew. Then, I would have headed back to Spain, so my crew could get home safely.
 
教材编者根据史实,以学生Sam的角度自编了一段短文,使用if虚拟条件句,表达了与麦哲伦做法不同的观点。这段短文在调动学生已有的历史、地理知识储备的基础上,创设语境,补充相关词汇,以语篇形式向学生具体展示了如何使用该语法结构表达对过去事实的不同看法。
 
2.语料的适切性
 
首先,教师选取语料时必须考虑学习者自身的各种因素,如学习者的年龄特征、认知水平、学习经验和社会背景等,从而决定所需语料的难度、体裁和题材。其次,语料的适切性还体现在语言材料应能激发学习者的认知兴趣。教师应当传授的不是枯燥乏味的语法规则,而是语法技能,所选择的语料应以学生为中心,考虑学生的真实兴趣(Larsen-Freeman,2003)。兴趣是学习得以持久的坚实支柱之一。如果语料内容空洞、乏味,脱离学生生活实际,那么就不容易引起学生的学习兴趣。
 
[案例2]
 
“no matter +疑问词”所引导的让步状语从句是高中英语语法教学的重点之一。以下语料用于笔者所设计的一堂语法教学展示课,该课曾获2014年度部级优课称号。
 
 
语料1:
 
If only tears were laughter
 
If only night was day
 
If only prayers were answered
 
Then we would hear God say 
 
 
No matter what they tell you
 
 
No matter what they do
 
 
No matter what they teach you
 
What you believe is true 
 
 
And I will keep you safe and strong
 
And shelter from the storm
 
No matter where it's barren
 
A dream is being born 
 
 
No matter who they follow
 
 
No matter where they lead
 
 
No matter how they judge us
 
I'll be everyone you need 
 
 
No matter if the sun don't shine
 
Or if the skies are blue
 
No matter what the end is
 
My life began with you
 
 
语料2:
 
Life is a gift—accept it, no matter where it comes from.
 
 
Life is a struggle—face it, no matter what lies behind.
 
Life is a song—sing it, no matter how terrible your voice is.
 
Life is beauty—praise it, no matter __________.
 
Life is a puzzle—solve it, no matter __________.
 
Life is an adventure—enjoy it, no matter _______________.
 
Life is an opportunity—take it, no matter _______________.
 
Life is a mission—complete it, no matter _______________.
 
Life is a game—play it, no matter ___________.
 
Life is it—live it, no matter _______________.
 
所选语料紧密结合学生兴趣,内容符合高中学生的认知水平,先通过Boyzone组合的经典流行歌曲No Matter What的片段引出目标语法,使学生熟悉no matter wh-/how结构,在此基础上开展了补全诗歌的练习,由易到难,促进学生感悟生活,并用所学目标语法进行表达。
 
3.语料的典型性
 
Schmidt(1990)认为,教育的作用不一定在于它给学生的明确讲解,而在于它能引导学生的注意力,唤起他们的语言意识。他强调对语言形式的有意识注意(noticing)是语言学习的必要条件,其中两大重要因素就是频率和突显性。在同等条件下,出现频率最高的语言形式最有可能被学生注意并内化;而语言形式在输入时越突出就越有可能被学生注意。因而教师在挑选语法教学语料时要选择目标语法出现频率较高且语用功能相对集中的语言材料,通过三维框架的搭建引起学生对目标语法的注意,并通过各种语言活动归纳出一般的语法规则。
 
[案例3]
 
出于语法、修辞的需要将谓语全部置于主语之前的语法现象称为全部倒装。传统语法教学中,学生通过句子操练,能熟练掌握该语法结构的形式,但对其意义和运用往往一知半解。以下语段在具体语境中集中呈现倒装句,不仅突显了其形式,而且有助于学生在语境中掌握倒装句的意义和用法。
 
How can I forget our visit to an animal park in Africa? At the entrance to the park stood many large signs warning us about monkeys, but my parents drove on without paying the slightest attention. Hardly had we stopped the car to watch the lions when a crowd of monkeys came pouring out of the forest, heading straight for the car. “Here come the monkeys!” I shouted, as I rolled down my window, hoping to touch one. In jumped the monkeys, scratching and screaming. Out ran my shocked mother, while my father and I were left to push the animals away as best as we could.
 
以上段落选自《英语语法快速突破(高中版)》,6句话中有4句是全部倒装句。该语料通过生活化的语境,集中突显了全部倒装的两个主要语用功能:(1)为了保持句子结构的平衡或为了使上下文衔接更加紧密,表地点的介词短语置于句首(at the entrance to the park);(2)为了使描述或描绘更加生动,将表示运动方向的副词(here、in、out)置于句首。这样的语料更有利于学生注意、识记和模仿目标语法。
 
4.语料的多样性
 
语料的形式多样,包括口头或书面,因而教师可采取多种方式将语料导入英语课堂教学,其中比较常见的三种方式是视频、音频和文本。这三种方式对于激发学生的学习兴趣都有帮助。
 
[案例4]
 
Yesterday Once More是许多学生熟悉和喜爱的一首经典老歌。该歌曲的歌词简洁,旋律舒缓,透露出一丝伤感。歌词第一节追忆过往时光,主要出现了一般过去时和过去完成时。
 
When I was young
 
I'd listen to the radio
 
Waitin' for my favorite songs
 
When they played I'd sing along
 
It made me smile
 
Those were such happy times
 
And not so long ago
 
How I wondered where they'd gone
 
But they're back again
 
Just like a long lost friend
 
All the songs I loved so well
 
教师让学生先聆听歌曲,体会其中所蕴含的情感,并根据歌词对一般过去时和过去完成时的语法知识进行回顾和总结,之后再配以一段介绍歌曲作者的文本进行练习和巩固。
 
The Carpenters _________ (be) brother and sister Richard Carpenter and Karen Carpenter. To date, the Carpenters' album and single sales _________ (total) more than 100 million units. Producing a distinctively soft musical style, they _________ (become) one of the best-selling music artists of all time. During their 14-year career, the Carpenters ________ (record) 11 albums, 31 singles, five television specials, and a short-lived television series before Karen _________ (die) from heart failure in 1983.
 
5.语料的延展性
 
语法语料应为学生提供大量真实的用于观察和分析的语言输入实例,从而使学生对所学语法形成一定的感性认识,并进行思维加工,从中归纳出语法规则。但语言学习的最终目的是使学生能用目的语来交流信息和思想。语言输出是语言教学中必不可少的环节,因而语料不仅要提供语言实例,还要在内容上有一定的延伸,为学生提供一定的思维延展空间,为语法输出提供铺垫与支持。
 
[案例5]
 
快餐文化是学生熟悉和喜爱的话题。以下语料选自“Focus on Grammar 4: An Integrated Skills Approach”,通过介绍快餐界巨头麦当劳和快餐文化所带来的影响,提供了目标语法(动名词和动词不定式)的输入。
 
“I'll have a Big Mac, a large fries, and a medium soda.” The language may change, but you can expect to hear this order in more than 100 countries all over the world, and the numbers keep growing. In the United States alone, most McDonald's customers need to travel less than four minutes to arrive at the next pair of Golden Arches.
 
Dining on fast food has become a way of life for millions and millions of people. What is it about eating on the run that so many people find appealing? Of course, the most obvious answer is that, true to its name, fast food is fast. In today's hectic society, people don't want to waste time. But apart from the speed of ordering and getting served, satisfied customers talk about convenience, price, and, yes, even good taste.
 
Not everyone is in favor of fast-food restaurants' spreading over the globe. In fact, a lot of people are fed up with seeing the same restaurants wherever they go. Nutritionists point to the health consequences of eating fast foods since they are generally high in calories, fat, and salt, but low in fiber and nutrients. Sociologists complain that fast-food restaurants may prevent families from spending quality time together around the dinner table. Social critics condemn fast-food chains for introducing unhealthy foods to other countries and for underpaying their workers. Then there is the issue of the environment. Those Big Macs and Quarter Pounders use a lot of disposable packaging and this, in turn, creates a lot of waste. It's a high price to pay for convenience.
 
语料中提到了快餐缺乏营养,输出环节就以此内容为基础进行延展,无需另换主题或语境,鼓励学生使用目标语法进行情景交际。例如,根据下图对多种快餐食品作营养价值分析,从而做出合理的食物选择。  
 
 
  
Sample:①If you want to lose weight, you should consider eating a Subway turkey sandwich because it contains around 300 calories. ②You're likely to gain weight even if you eat a single slice of pepperoni pizza, which has about 650 calories. Instead you are advised to think about choosing an egg roll at Leeann Chin.
 
三、语法语料的改编
 
所选语料的语言水平应在学生最近发展区内,即略高于学生当前的语言水平。但超越学生语言能力太多的语料很有可能会打击学生的学习积极性,使其产生挫败感。在这种情况下,教师则应对语料进行适当的改编,使其适应学生的语言水平。McDonough和Shaw(2003)建议教师采用补充(adding)、删除(deleting)、修改(modifying)和简化(simplification)等技巧改编教学素材。
 
1. 补充
 
在时间允许的情况下,教师可根据教学目标和学生需求对原有语料内容进行延伸与扩展。
 
[案例6]
 
以牛津上海版《英语》高一下册第三单元的语法任务——定语从句为例,阅读文本The Interesting World of Plants中只出现了三句定语从句,目标语法出现频率较低,不能引起学生的有效注意,故教师可增补相关主题的以下语篇,作为课文辅助,进行知识点扩展。例如:
 
Scientists have discovered that plants can learn and remember, even though they do not have a brain. For example, they studied the touch-me-not,① the leaves of which fold inwards when touched or shaken to protect itself and re-open minutes later. While the scientists are unsure how the plants learn and remember, they think it might be down to a calcium-based network in their cells, ②which are in some ways similar to animals' memory process.
 
The research radically changes the way③ that humans perceive plants and the boundaries between plants and animals, ④which includes, the scientists said, our definition of learning as a property special to organisms with a nervous system.
 
2. 删除
 
在选择用于语法教学的语料时,教师要精心挑选符合教学目标或学生需求的部分来改编所选语料。
 
[案例7]
 
否定词置于句首时需使用部分倒装结构,其教学难点在于该语法的意义和语用,即突出强调所修饰的部分,可用于表达深刻情感或感悟。 诺贝尔和平奖得主埃利·维塞尔在其代表作《夜》 一书中有一整个段落使用了部分倒装。
 
Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed ... Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never.
 
通过反复朗读该段落,学生能体会到作者的绝望和战争的残酷,理解部分倒装的强调功能。但原文所用词汇curse、seal、condemn超出了课标要求,而且其中有关宗教信仰的概念,如数字seven、God Himself等超出学生的认知范围,故节选时作了相应的删减,以减少学生的理解障碍。删减后的内容如下:
 
Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night ... Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things ... Never.
 
3. 修改
 
教师还可根据教学目标和学生需求调整、改编语料内容或活动形式。
 
[案例8]
 
被动语态的形式和意义是高中生掌握较好的语法部分,但其语用却常常被忽视。事实上,被动语态多用于论述客观事实,常出现在科技文献、新闻报道、书刊介绍以及景物描写等内容中。例如:
 
In October 2003, Jobs' doctors diagnosed him with cancer (Jobs was diagnosed with cancer), but he resisted his doctors' recommendations for surgery. Instead, a doctor who ran a clinic that advised juice fasts, and other uncommon approaches influenced him (he was influenced by a doctor who ran a clinic that advised juice fasts, and other uncommon approaches). However, he finally gave up and his doctors eventually operated on him (he was eventually operated on) in July 2004, which appeared to successfully remove the tumor.
 
In April 2009, Jobs underwent a liver transplant. People described the surgery as “excellent”(The surgery was described as “excellent”), but a year and a half later the company announced (it was announced) that the company had granted him a medical leave of absence.
 
Journalists reported (It was reported) that Jobs resigned as Apple's CEO on August 24, 2011 and died at his California home on October 5, 2011. People say (It is said) that Jobs had worked for Apple until the day before his death.
 
(注:括号中的文字为语料原文。)
 
该语料原文使用被动语态,客观地报道了乔布斯患病的始末。为了使学生能更直观地感受到被动语态的语用效果,语料中的被动语态被替换成了主动语态,因而文章读起来拗口,衔接不自然。如此,通过对语料的修改,可促使学生思考目标语法的语用功能。
 
4. 简化
 
简化实际上是修改的一种类型,属于重新编写,例如把语料文本中复杂的句子和大量的生词改编成简化的句子与学过的词汇。
 
[案例9]
 
分词作定语、表语时的特点为: (1)现在分词一般表示主动意义,过去分词一般表示被动意义;(2)现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示状态或做完的事。以下语料选自Developing Grammar in Context。
 
When little Emily Waterhouse left her home, she went on an amazing mile-and-a-half walk through the winter countryside. The lost two-year-old made her way across thick woodland, pools of water, and rough tracks. Finally, after she had been missing for two hours, a police helicopter spotted her among the trees.
 
Emily set out on her journey as she was playing in the back garden of the family's seven-bedroomed home.
 
“It's amazing that a girl of her age and size managed to get so far. It is difficult for adults to walk there, never mind a small child,” said her mother Henrietta.
 
PC Shaun Laverty spotted her as he hovered in a helicopter. “We were all pretty amazed by how far she had got. It is rough ground that there are no paths, so it was quite remarkable.”
 
Mrs Waterhouse said, “I was astounded that she wasn't hurt. But Emily didn't seem upset by it all. She was just disappointed she could not ride back in the helicopter.”
 
该语料集中了现在分词和过去分词作定语的差异对比,以及分词作表语的形式意义。语料题材虽为一则儿童失的报道,但内容重复凌乱,hover和astound等词超出课标要求,因而根据语料适切性、典型性原则进行如下重组和替换:
 
When Emily Waterhouse left her home, the lost two-year-old walked a mile and a half through the winter countryside. After she had been missingfor two hours, a police helicopter spotted her among the trees.
 
PC Shaun Laverty spotted her as he rode in a helicopter. “We were all pretty amazed by how far she had got. It is rough ground that there are no paths, so it was quite amazing that a girl of her age and size made it.”
 
Mrs Waterhouse said, “I was surprised that she wasn't hurt. But Emily didn't seem upset by it all. She was just disappointed she could not ride back in the helicopter.”
 
四、语法语料的积累
 
语法语料的来源多种多样,除了教师手头常见的教材、语法书外,还可取自语料库。目前影响较大的语料库有:英国国家语料库(BNC)、布朗语料库(Brown Corpus)、国际英语语料库(ICE)、美国当代英语语料库(COCA)等。真实语料源于生活,只要善于发现,好的语料无处不在:
 
1. 生活中随处可见的纸质材料:传单、平面广告、信件、产品说明、使用指南、地图、时刻表、公告、食谱、合同等。
 
2. 英语书籍:杂志、漫画、文学作品、新闻报纸、语法书、原版教材等。
 
3. 生活场所:路牌、指示牌、标语、名片、简历、笔记、便签等。
 
4. 真实生活中的视听材料:真实对话、演讲、英文歌曲、电台节目、公众场合的广播、视频公开课、电视新闻、访谈、影视片段等。
 
5. 网络信息资源:网页、电子邮件、论坛帖子、聊天记录、博客等(王琳,2010)。
 
以上列举了生活中可作为教学材料使用的语法语料的来源可见教学中并不缺少语料,但教师是否能迅速、准确地找到贴目标语法的语料则取决于日常的积累。语法语料的积累是一个逐步形成、不断丰富的过程,需要定的整理规则和不懈的坚持。教师在平时听、读各类文章时,有意识地将其中频繁出现、具有代表性的语法知识点记录下来,输入到相关文档中,并建立语料文件夹,形成语料资源库。待需要有关某语法点语料时,从中查找、提取就事半功倍了。
 
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参考文献
 
Celce-Murcia, M. & Olshtain, E. 2000. Discourse and Context in Language Teaching [M]. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.
 
Fuchs, M. & Bonner, M. 2005. Focus on Grammar 4: An Integrated Skills Approach (3rd Edition)[M]. NY: Pearson Education.
 
Larsen-Freeman, D. 2002. The grammar of choice [A]. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New Perspectives on Grammar Teaching in Second Language Classrooms [C]. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. 103-118.
 
Larsen-Freeman, D. 2003. Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring [M]. Boston: Thomson Heinle.
 
McDonough, J. & Shaw, C. 2003. Materials and Methods in ELT: A Teacher's Guide [M]. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
 
Mol, H., Collie, J. & Joseph, N. 2015. 英语语法快速突破(高中版) [M]. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社.
 
Nettle, M. & Hopkins, D. 2003. Developing Grammar in Context (Intermediate) [M]. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.
 
Renshaw, J. 2007. Boost! Grammar (Student Book, Level 4)[M]. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
 
Schmidt, R. W. 1990. The role of consciousness in second language learning [J]. Applied Linguistics, 11(2): 129-158.
 
上海教育出版社. 2008. 高级中学课本·英语(牛津上海版) 高中一年级第二学期[T]. 上海:上海教育出版社.
 
孙东晖,孙迎晖. 2007. 国外英语教材的编写特色及设计思路评析[J]. 中小学外语教学(中学篇),(8):6-10.
 
王琳. 2010. 纸质广告真实语料在对外汉语任务型口语活动中的应用研究[D]. 上海:华东师范大学.
 
张逸. 1998. 外语教材的“真实性”之我见[J]. 国外外语教学,(1):35-36.
 
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附作者信息:陈琼  上海市复兴高级中学   
 
  
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