(中学篇)2017年第10期:通过多角度看问题发展学生思维品质的教学实践(北京:杨立宪)一文涉及的教学内容

 
阅读材料1:
 
He Was Not There as a Father
 
My name is Makaziwe Mandela. I'm Nelson Mandela's oldest daughter from his first marriage to my mom, Nurse Evelyn Mase. I actually struggled for years with feelings of anger and abandonment and my brothers felt pretty much the same.
 
As a child, before my father went to prison, I longed to have both of my parents in my life, but it was my mother who brought me up. I had a father who had been there but not really there.
 
When I was eight and he was in hiding, we used to walk together through the forest and we were close, we talked and were silent together, and it's a good memory. That's probably the closest I ever got to him.
 
When he came out of prison, he was just swallowed by the world and by South Africa. I still think that after he was released, he should have created some space for the family, for his children. We were ignored, while he focused all his attention on politics.
 
I really do think he could have done things a little bit differently. Even now, when he has more time, he doesn't make the effort. He's open and extrovert to the world, but uncomfortable with his intimate personal relationships with his own family.
 
My mom was a strong woman. For a long time, she was the only breadwinner. She paid for his education and she made him what he is, the lawyer and the man with a good reputation in the community. She used to say, “I did all of those things for your father and then when he made it, he showed me the door.”
 
I want to spend as much time as possible with him before he goes but there has to be willingness on both sides. I don't know if he loves me. Children must learn to accept that sometimes they're not really loved by their parents.
 
There's no doubt that he really has contributed positively to the world and that makes me feel proud. But that has come at a heavy price.
 
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(352 words)
 
1. abandonment  n. 遗弃                             2. long to do  渴望
 
3. swallow  vt. 吞下                                     4. extrovert  adj. 外向的
 
5. intimate  adj. 亲密的                               6. breadwinner  n. 养家糊口的人
 
7. reputation  n. 名声
 
 
 
 
阅读材料2:
 
He Was My Prisoner; He Was Also My Father
 
My name is Christo Brand. When Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison, the police flew him to Robben Island prison. That was exactly where I met him, because in 1978 at the age of 18, I was sent there as a prison guard.
 
Before going to Robben Island, I had been warned I would be guarding the most dangerous terrorists. To my surprise, Prisoner 46664, then aged 60, was very polite. He treated me with respect, asked me about my family, and encouraged me to study. After a while, even though he was a prisoner, a friendship was born. It was a friendship behind bars.
 
His cell was tiny. He could cross it in three paces. At first he slept on a mat on the floor. In winter he trembled under thin blankets. He had to wear a shirt, shorts, and sandals.
 
During the daytime, he worked in the bright light of a quarry. The food was not at all healthful, so I secretly took him some bread.
 
At night he worked hard at his studies and educated himself. And he did exercises to keep fit before dawn. Secretly, in the long nights, he wrote the story of his life and buried the book in the yard because it was forbidden under the prison law. It was smuggled out. That is the book you see in the shop windows, Long Walk to Freedom.
 
Mandela was a person who loved children, so I helped him to be able to hold his baby granddaughter. When I had a problem, he would give me advice. When he eventually was released in 1990, the prison was empty for me.
 
Now I am 53 and I am a guide working with 20 former prisoners showing tourists around the cells where Mandela was once a prisoner. Like me, Mandela came from a farm. He was a human being. We understood that we shared the same sky and the same air.
 
Even today, I still find it amazing how he was able to change our relationship. He was my prisoner, but he was also my friend, my president and my father.
 
(364 words)
 
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1. cell  n. 牢房                                                        2. pace  n. 步距
 
3. mat  n. 垫子                                                       4. sandal  n. 凉鞋
 
5. quarry  n. 采石场                                                 6. dawn  n. 黎明
 
7. bury  vt. 埋                                                        8. smuggle ... out  v. 把……偷带出去
 
 
 
 
阅读材料3:
 
Mandela Is a Sellout; He Betrayed Black People
 
Nelson Mandela's former wife, Winnie Mandela, who continued to fight hard against apartheid when Nelson Mandela was in prison, accused him of betraying South Africa's black people. Here is what she said in an interview.
 
You all must realize that Mandela was not the only man who suffered. There were many others who were kept in prison and died. Mandela did go to prison and he went in there as a young revolutionary but look what happened later. Mandela let us down.
 
He agreed to a bad deal for the blacks. The economy is very much “white”. It has a few token blacks, but so many who gave their life in the struggle have died unrewarded.
 
Look at this Truth and Reconciliation charade. He should never have agreed to it. What good does the truth do? How does it help anyone to know where and how their loved ones were killed or buried?
 
Look what they make him do. The great Mandela. He has no control or say any more but has turned into a stool pigeon for the white people. They put that huge statue of him right in the middle of the richest “white” area of Johannesburg. Not here where we spilled our blood and where it all started.
 
I cannot forgive him for accepting the Nobel Peace Prize with de Klerk, the person who put him in prison. They went hand in hand. Do you think de Klerk released him from the goodness of his heart? He had to. The world had changed.
 
He prefers to sip tea with the Queen, the biggest oppressor of black people and have dinner with the Clintons. He was able to sit here only because of our struggle and ME. Because of the things I and people like me had done to get freedom.
 
(310 words)
 
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1. sellout  n. 叛徒                                        2. betray  vt. 背叛
 
3. accuse  vt. 指责;指控                              4. revolutionary  n. 革命者
 
5. deal  n. 交易                                           6. token  adj. 象征性的
 
7. unrewarded  adj. 未被回报的                     8. Truth and Reconciliation  真相与和解
 
9. charade  n. 装腔作势                                10. bury  vt. 埋  
 
11. say  n. 发言权                                        12. stool pigeon  n. 线人                       
 
13. statue  n. 雕像                                       14. spill  vi. & vt. 洒落
 
15. sip tea  品茶                                          16. oppressor  n. 压迫者
 
 
 
 
阅读材料4:
 
A Great Inspiration
 
Mandela, the founding father of South Africa, died on December 5, 2013 in Johannesburg at 95. Seeing him as an inspiration to them, many shared how he inspired them to mourn the passing of their beloved Madiba.
 
 South African Nobel Peace Prize winner, Bishop Desmond Tutu said, “I believe prison was the making of Nelson Mandela. I often surprise people when I say this. Suffering can lead to bitterness. But suffering can also be the test of the openness of a leader, of their selflessness. When Mandela had gone to prison, he had been one of the angriest. The suffering of those 27 years helped him to grow the big-heartedness and forgiveness. Prison helped Mandela learn how to make enemies into friends.” 
 
Delekeile Klaas, a member of the ANC during apartheid said. “Madiba's long walk has ended. Part of his life was spent in prison. But even prison guards became his friend. They realized how good he was. Besides, he had the same effect on hot-headed members of ANC including myself. When he said ‘Nobody takes us off the road of nation building and reconciliation', some of us saw it as a betrayal, but Madiba stood firm. That was the gift he gave us. To be free, to forgive each other, and to reconcile.”
 
ANC activist Charlotte Petersen-Davids said, “I still remember the speech given by Mandela. He said, ‘I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.' That speech changed me completely. I never liked white people. I saw them as my oppressors. Those words taught me that if you're going to move forward, you can only unite and show love. Bitterness and hatred take you backwards.”
 
(358 words)
 
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1. inspiration  n. 鼓舞人心的人     2. mourn  vt. 悼念                     3. Madiba 对曼德拉的爱称         
 
4. bishop  n. 主教                      5. bitterness  n. 痛苦                  6. big-heartedness  n. 宽宏大量
 
7. forgiveness  n. 原谅               8. hot-headed  adj. 鲁莽的          9. reconciliation  n. 和解
 
10. betrayal   n. 背叛                11. reconcile  vi. 和解                  12. activist  n. 激进分子
 
13. domination  n 支配              14. cherish  vt. 珍惜                    15. ideal  n. 理想          
 
16. harmony  n. 和谐                 17. oppressor  n. 压迫者              18. unite  vi. & vt. 团结
 
19. hatred  n. 仇恨